原标题:译事 | 最新商量!机译已对国际贸易发生十分重要影响

一、首要翻译研究数据库:

用作智库型研商与谍报平台,译世界【官方微非确定性信号译·世界(YEEWO普拉多LD)】推出“译事”栏目,集中全世界语言服务行当,以正规化的见识、前沿的见地,通过双语译介、原创策划等各个情势,评述行业情状、观望业态发展,接待关心!本期为第三十三期

西班牙王国阿利Kanter大学(University of
Alicante)的口笔译文献数据库:

于今,机译发展得天崩地裂,却鲜有实在的试验数据评释机译到底对各行各业形成了什么样的影响。这段时间,根源U.S.国度经济研究局的研商人士先是核算了机译和人造智能对交易与工业的实质性影响,并公布了故事集。她俩得出了何等的定论?接待关心本期译事。

荷兰王国John·Benjamin出版公司(JohnBenjamins)的翻译切磋文献数据库:

A group of researchers at the National
Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) have written a working paper entitled
“Does Machine Translation Affect International Trade? Evidence from a
Large Digital Platform.” The NBER is a private, non-profit organization
that performs and disseminates economic research and one of the most
influential think tanks on economic policy in the United States.

二、翻译商量能源网址:

美利哥国度经研局的一组讨论人口写了一篇题为《机译对国贸有震慑吗?依靠大型数字平台论证》的钻研手稿(译者注:working
paper指还未正式刊出的学术杂文、书刊篇章或评头品足)。U.S.A.国家经研局是一家从事并发表经研成果的民间非营利协会,是U.S.经济政策方面最有影响力的智库之一。

Anthony Pym works on translation and intercultural studies:

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Center for Research and Innovation in Translation and Translation
Technology :

The paper explains that as one of the
most significant technological advances today, artificial intelligence
(AI) is poised to impact work, trade, and the economy. However,
“empirical evidence documenting concrete economic effects of using AI is
largely lacking.” The study is one of the first to examine the
material impact machine translation (MT), and AI in general, is having
on trade and industry.

这篇故事集提出,人工智能作为明日一大技术进步,将对职业、贸经爆发耳熏目染,不过“却鲜有文献用试验证据论证人工智能对经济产生的其实影响”。该商量率先查证了机械翻译和人为智能对交易与工业的实质性影响。

三、首要翻译商讨期刊:

The paper by Erik Brynjolfsson, a
Professor at MIT’s Sloan School of Management, Xiang Hui, and Meng Liu
was published in August 2018. It looks at how eBay’s machine translation
engines have affected international trade on the platform. This analysis
is used as evidence “of direct causal links between AI adoption and
economic activities.”

  1. Forum:

该文由密歇根理哲大学斯隆法高校教书Erik
Brynjolfsson以及Xiang Hui和Meng
Liu著成,于二零一八年5月公布。小说探讨了eBay(译者注:U.S.最大的在线商品交易平台之一)的机译引擎对其平台上的国贸有啥影响。这么些深入分析结果用于论证“人工智能应用和经济运动之间的直白因果联系”。

FORUM was founded in 2003 by the joint efforts of researchers from KSCI
and ESIT. It is a refereed international Translation Studies Journal,
bilingual English/French, and appears twice a year. FORUM is supported
by UNESCO’s Clearing House for Literary Translation. The Journal’s
primary objective is to offer publication space to Translation Studies
researchers not only from Western countries, but also from Asia, Africa
and the Middle-East. The papers published in FORUM deal with a variety
of issues: translation of technical texts, literature, philosophy and
poetry, interpreting in its various modes, the teaching of translation
and interpreting, and often offer regional points of view. They apply a
variety of liberal arts or empirical methodologies.

Consumers Benefit

Editorial email address:
forum.tni图片 2gmail.com

开销者收益

ISSN 1598-7647 | E-ISSN 2451-909X | Electronic edition

eBay has developed its own inhouse MT
engines (eMT) for multiple language pairings. The study focuses on the
English to Spanish eMT, which was introduced in 2014, and looks at its
effect on international trade based on US exports.

This journal is peer reviewed and indexed in: ANVUR Riviste
scientifiche (ANVUR/Scientifiche) ; CNKI ; ERIH PLUS ; IBR/IBZ ;
Linguistic Bibliography/Bibliographie Linguistique ; Linguistics and
Language Behavior Abstracts  ; MLA International Bibliography ; Scopus ;
Translation Studies Bibliography

eBay自己作主研究开发了多语配对机译引擎。本文基于美利坚合众国讲话情形,首要钻探了2016年引进的马耳他语-西班牙语机译引擎,及其对国贸的震慑。

  1. Translation, Cognition & Behavior:

According to then eBay Staff MT Language
Specialist Juan Rowda in an article he wrote for Slator in November
2016, “human translation is not viable” for the company. He said as of
that writing, the company had 800 million listings of around 300 words
each. “It would take 1,000 translators 5 years to translate only the 60
million listings eligible for Russia,” Rowda said, contextualizing the
problem that eMT was meant to solve.

Translation, Cognition & Behavior focuses on a broad area of research
generally known as cognitive translation studies – a term that
encompasses new conceptual paradigms being explored in cognitive
translatology as well as traditional translation process research.
Cognitive translation studies intersects with a number of disciplines,
and the journal welcomes interdisciplinary research from philosophy,
cognitive science, psychology, bilingualism studies, anthropology,
artificial intelligence, ergonomics, and, indeed any discipline that can
illuminate our understanding of the mental processes that underlie the
complex observable behavior of cross-language communication.

2015年1月,那时在eBay供职的机译语言专家JuanRowda投稿给Slator写道eBay“养不活人工翻译”。他说,eBay公司有8亿个商品,每一种商品有大致300字描述。“假诺雇佣一千个译员,供给5年技能只是翻译完给俄罗丝提供的四千万个商品。”Rowda说,机译引擎便是要消除那样的主题素材。

The overall objective of the journal is to connect rigorous descriptions
of the observable activities of translators and interpreters – as the
result of ethnographic, experimental or corpus research – to conceptions
of the translating mind and brain. Translation, Cognition & Behavior
will thus publish empirical and theoretical contributions focusing on
the cognitive and behavioral aspects of a broad range of cross-language
activities including all kinds of translation and interpreting tasks and
subtasks, but also other unique forms of communicative mediation,
professional or otherwise.

The NBER paper finds that “the
introduction of a machine translation system has significantly increased
international trade on this platform, increasing exports by 17.5%
.”
Although, using a number of different control samples, the results vary
from a positive change of between 11.8% and 20.9%.

Topics of specific interest include, but are not limited to the
extension of general cognitive research paradigms (e.g.,
computationalism, connectionism, embodied, embedded, extended, enacted,
affective, distributed cognition) into cognitive translation studies;
the development and learning of translation skills (e.g., expertise,
cognitive aspects of translation teaching and learning, translation
competence); cognitive research methods (eye tracking, keystroke
logging, neuroimaging, and so on); and explorations of how the
environment influences people’s behavior and cognitive processing when
performing communicative tasks (ergonomics, human–computer interaction,
usability studies).

U.S.国家经研局的钻探显得“机译系统的引荐非常的大推进了eBay平台的国贸,出口量大增了17.5%”。若使用大批量见仁见智的支配样本,该数据结果介于11.8%至20.9%期间。

ISSN 2542-5277 | E-ISSN 2542-5285 | Electronic edition This journal is
peer reviewed and indexed in: CNKI ; Glottolog ; IBR/IBZ ; Linguistic
Bibliography/Bibliographie Linguistique ; Linguistics and Language
Behavior Abstracts  ; MLA International Bibliography ; Translation
Studies Bibliography

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  1. Journal of Translation Studies:

eMT is having more of an impact on
products that are differentiated, cheaper, or contain more words in
listing titles, and is particularly effective for less experienced
buyers, the study also found. Another interesting finding is that
consumers seemed to “benefit from eMT more than sellers do […] because
consumers gain both from reduced language frictions and also from lower
prices.”

The Journal of Translation Studies is a double-blind peer reviewed
bilingual journal (English and Chinese) devoted to all aspects of
translation studies. While the journal has a special focus on the
history, theory and practice of Chinese-English, English-Chinese
translation, it also publishes high-quality articles on research
regarding other language combinations and/or general theoretical aspects
of translation. The Journal also publishes book reviews by invitation.
Contributions may be submitted all year round.

该商量还开掘,机译引擎对可分别的、价格更低的或标题中包蕴越多词汇的出品影响越来越大,并且对那多少个缺乏购买经历的购买者极度有效。另二个风趣的觉察是,买家就如比商家更能从机译引擎中收入,因为它既可以帮买家裁减语言障碍,又能帮买家找到低价商品。

江西学术文献库:

Language Barriers Have Greatly Hindered
Trade

  1. Mon TI. Monographs in Translation and Interpreting:

语言障碍非常大阻碍了交易

MonTI is an academic, peer-reviewed and international journal fostered
by the three public universities with a Translation Degree in the
Spanish region of Valencia (Universitat d’Alacant, Universitat Jaume I
de Castelló and Universitat de València). Our first priority is to
publish texts providing an in-depth analysis of translation- and
interpreting-related matters that meet high standards of scientific
rigour, foster debate and promote plurality.MonTI will publish one
thematic issue each year, with a maximum of 600 pages, first as a hard
copy journal (ISSN: 1889-4178) and, after a six-month interval, as an
online journal (ISSN: 1989-9335), taking advantage of the digital
platform provided by the University of Alicante. In order to ensure both
linguistic democracy and dissemination of the journal to the broadest
readership possible, the hard-copy version will publish articles in
German, Spanish, French, Catalan and English. The online version is able
to accommodate multilingual versions of articles so that authors who so
desire can provide a copy of their article in a language other than the
stipulated languages of publication. Furthermore, an attempt will be
made to provide an English-language translation of all articles not
submitted in this language. We would like to make special mention of our
commitment to meeting international quality criteria. Thus, the journal
will invite experts in each of the subject areas related to Translation
and Interpreting to serve as issue editors. There will be an open call
for papers for each issue, and at least 75% of the contributing authors
will always be from universities other than our own. Each contribution
will be peer-reviewed by two preeminent researchers or professionals,
and MonTI will provide authors with a detailed explanation when an
article is not considered worthy of publication.Apart from the Board of
Referees, there is a Board of Advisors made up by prestigious scholars
whose main task will be to help us to set our editorial policy and
subject it to assessment.

The results in the research paper are
consistent with other recent research, such as that of Johannes Lohmann
in 2011 and Alejandro Molnar in 2013, who, according to the paper,
“argue that language barriers may be far more trade-hindering than
suggested by previous literature.”

iNDEXINGMonTI is included in the following databases: BITRA, Carhus
Plus+, Dialnet, DICE, ERIH Plus, ESCI (Web of Science), FECYT, ISOC,
Latindex, Redalyc, Scopus & TSB.

该商探究文中的结论与近期几年别的商量得出的定论一致,比方二零一二年JohannesLohmann的研商和二零一三年AlejandroMolnar的钻探,前面一个在杂谈中写道“语言障碍对交易的掣肘大概比在此以前文献所述更甚。”

eMT is not used for product categories,
adverts, or other fixed areas of the webpages, but is specifically
applied to searches. Buyers can search in Spanish, and eMT then enables
eBay to match the search query to its listing titles, which are stored
in English. From here, the eMT translates and displays the listing
titles in Spanish, so the Spanish users only ever need to engage with
Spanish content.

机译引擎不是用以产品目录、广告依旧网页的别样固定区域,而是专项使用于找寻。买家能够运用西班牙语寻找,然后机译引擎能够使eBay将追寻内容与其以法语存款和储蓄的货品标题列表进行相配。接下来,机翻引擎翻译并展现西班牙语的制品标题列表,那样西班牙语顾客就只须要浏览西班牙语内容。